Tag Archive: Technology

Global Directors Hear from Scientist on Encryption, Human Error, and Homer Simpson

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More information is hidden in plain sight than ever before. When the success of the global economy is hinged on the secure ownership of intellectual property and data, it behooves those who govern in the global company to understand how this information is being protected—and how it could be compromised. To that end, the National Association of Corporate Directors convened directors and cyber risk experts in Geneva, Switzerland, for its first Global Cyber Forum.

Dr. Simon Singh demonstrates the inner workings of an Enigma machine (Credit: Les Studios Casagrande).

Attendees from nearly every continent made their way to the Hotel President Wilson to confront the challenges of securing data across borders in light of complex and sometimes competing regulations. The European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which goes into effect on May 25, 2018, will be a watchword during each session. The complex and potentially costly regulation is likely to affect most companies that do business with or employ Europeans.

GDPR defines protected data far more broadly than the protections set by most country regulators. (Click here to learn more about the implications of GDPR.) Experts from international KPMG offices, cybersecurity firm Rapid7, AIG together with NACD cohosts Ridge Global and the Internet Security Alliance, will proffer their best advice on the interconnected challenges and solutions of cybersecurity oversight for today’s board directors.

NACD’s Global Cyber Forum commenced Tuesday night with a keynote presentation by popular scientist and author Dr. Simon Singh.

A particle physicist who completed his degree at Cambridge University while working at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Singh has committed himself to helping everyday people understand some of the most complex concepts in modern math and science. He is the author of several books and won a BAFTA award for producing Fermat’s Last Theorem, a documentary based on the search to prove one of the most difficult mathematical theories in history.

Singh’s presentation in Geneva turned directors’ attention to “the history of secrecy,” a topic that he covers in his 1999 book, The Code Book: The Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography (Doubleday). He pointed to writers of the popular TV programs, The Simpsons and Futurama, to highlight how unexpected points about mathematics and science hidden in plain sight and how susceptible we are to finding patterns that may have absolutely no meaning.

He cited several instances of codes being found in popular texts or songs, including in the rock band Led Zeppelin’s “Stairway to Heaven,” which when played in reverse has been interpreted to contain an evil message. When Singh queued up the song, at first no one in the audience heard any discernable words. Then he pointed to the lyrics on a slide deck and almost half of the audience “heard” the words. His point? To challenge the audience to be more skeptical and open to believing that which can be proven—or disproven—with rigorous evidence.

When the science of cryptography was introduced to the audience. Singh noted that messages can be found as a pattern almost anywhere—including in Moby-Dick, where one author found an inordinate number of passages pointing to history that had coincidentally happened since its publication in 1851. The human mind, however, has been able over the millennia to form some truly remarkable codes that have eluded prying eyes and minds for hundreds of years.

While some of the earliest computing machines, such as Enigma, developed during the First World War present nearly insurmountable odds against being deciphered, Singh reminded the audience that all ciphers are created by humans, and where there are humans, there is bound to be error. The same human curiosity and propensity to find patterns in behavior has led some skilled code-breakers such as those at the UK’s Bletchley Park who turned the tide of World War II by breaking codes.

Directors in the audience were challenged to think of the technologies that could protect their company’s own secrets while also considering the power—and foibles—of human error. Singh brought with him a prized possession: his very own Enigma machine.

When he turned to the audience to see if they had any questions about it after a brief demonstration, one attendee asked how the next frontier of quantum encryption would impact businesses. Singh pointed to the fact that scientists in Geneva were already sending messages encrypted at the quantum level within cities, and that others had sent quantum-secured messages via satellite. Quantum computing itself could make all encryption obsolete, he said. Such a development would render useless our current understanding of how to protect corporate assets, such as customer information and other data. He also noted that no one really knows what governments around the world have already achieved regarding this next frontier in information security.

 

Coverage of the full day of programming at the Global Cyber Forum is forthcoming in another installment of the blog and in the May/June issue of NACD Directorship magazine. 

Leveraging the Risks and Rewards of Information Technology

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As information technology (IT) continues to evolve, so do the oversight responsibilities of corporate directors. From big data analytics to social media to cybersecurity, technology creates opportunities for companies to innovate, to create operational efficiencies, and to develop a competitive advantage.

These potential rewards can bring significant risks, however. Directors have the task of ensuring technology is integrated into both company strategy and enterprise risk management—and to do so they must first gain a deeper understanding of how technology is impacting their businesses.

To help directors ensure they are prepared to leverage both the risks and rewards of IT, NACD developed an eight-part video series—The Intersection of Technology, Strategy, and Risk in partnership with KPMG and ISACA.

The series includes insights from leading technology experts and top executives from AT&T, Citigroup, Dunkin’ Brands, Kaiser Permanente, and  Oracle, among others, and focuses on critical IT areas for directors, such as:

  • how emerging technologies are altering the business landscape;
  • critical questions boards should be asking about technology;
  • the role of the CIO;
  • disruptive technologies;
  • fostering innovation;
  • balancing IT risks and opportunities;
  • cybersecurity; and
  • social media.

To complement the video series, NACD has additional resources, including white papers, articles, webinars, full transcripts of each video, and a discussion guide for directors who would like to take a deeper dive and bring these topics into their own boardrooms.

To watch The Intersection of Technology, Strategy, and Risk video series and access the supplemental resources, visit NACDonline.org/IT.

In Conversation With David Selinger

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Throughout Monday’s plenary sessions, a key message from panelists was the need for directors to blend quantitative—harder—data with qualitative—softer—complements. For example, a focus on shareholder return but with a stakeholder view, the intersection of situational awareness and the ability to use intuition, or the need to harness qualitative data with application of context. In an interview with Jeffrey M. Cunningham, managing director and senior advisor of the National Association of Corporate Directors, RichRelevance Co-founder and CEO David Selinger shared how directors can bring big data into the boardroom.

To a room full of attendees admittedly dissatisfied with the level of technological literacy on their boards, Selinger relied on his expertise in the field of e-commerce data analytics and groundbreaking work leading the research and development arm of Amazon’s data mining and personalization team.

The Creation of Data

The amount of data created today, and available for mining, is outstanding. As of 2012, 2.5 exobytes of data are created in one day. In 2004, the Internet traffic per month was 1 exobyte. According to Selinger, this figure both exemplifies the risk and the opportunity big data presents. For example, the current iPhone has the ability to tell Apple Computer where its user is at all times. Businesses can use this data to pinpoint the best offers and products that consumers may be interested in.

“All the different data around a consumer is the same as 100 years ago,” said Selinger, “but our ability to harness it has fundamentally changed.” Even broader, big data has significantly altered the rules of business competition, especially in Silicon Valley. Governance, however, has not yet adapted to this shift and technological pace. “Boardrooms are not designed to handle situations in which the tenets of the organization are subject to fundamental restructuring in just five years.”

Lessons for Directors

So what can directors do to tackle the unavoidable big data trend? From his experience as an executive and a director, Selinger observed that “the best thing my boards have done is force themselves to ask themselves the hard questions.” In many cases, the hard questions are the simple ones. How does this new product or technology impact our business? “It is the willing to be somewhat pedantic, somewhat provocative.”